The four major ligaments that connect the upper and lower bones of the knee are:
- Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)
- Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL)
- Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL),
- Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL).
- Ligaments are tough, fibrous tissues. The cruciate ligaments (ACL and PCL) support the knee in the side plane and limit forward and backward motion of the knee bone. The collateral ligaments (MCL and LCL) support the knee in the frontal plane and limit side to side motion of the joint. All four of these elements of the knee anatomy work collectively to stabilize and support the knee joint. The ligaments prevent any excessive forward or backward sliding motion of the bones within the joint.
Articular cartilage is a thin layer of padding that protects the ends of each bone and cushions the bones during joint movement. The Menisci are rubbery discs that act as a shock absorbers, and facilitate the transfer forces throughout the knee joint. Menisci also ensure proper weight distribution between the bones. The medial meniscus is larger and is found on the inner side of the knee. The lateral meniscus is found on the outer side of the knee.
The sophisticated structures of the knee joint can be easily injured when unusual forces are applied during sports, accidents, overuse or even natural wear and tear. Due to the nature of the elements of the knee being connected, many injuries of the knee can affect multiple structures in the joint.
Common injuries of the knee treated by Dr. Williams include:
- ACL Injuries
- PCL and Multi-Ligament Knee Injuries
- Meniscus Tears
- Cartilage Injuries
- Joint Instability
- Arthritis of the Knee